Sunday, 16 December 2012

Organisational behaviour

is concerned with the characteristics and behaviours of employees in isolation; the characteristics and processes that are part of the organisation itself; 'and the characteristics and behaviours directly resulting from people with their individual needs and motivations working within the structure of the organisation. One cannot understand an individual’s behaviour completely without learning something about that individual's organisation. Similarly, he cannot understand how the organisation operates without; studying the people who-make it up. Thus, the organisation influences and is influenced by individuals.
ELEMENTS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
The key elements in the organisational behaviour are people,, structure, technology and the environment in which the organisation operates.
People:People make up the internal and social system of the organisation. They consist of individuals and groups. The groups may be big or small; formal or informal; official or unofficial. Groups are dynamic and they work in the organisation to achieve their objectives.
Structure:Structure defines the formal relationships of the people in organisations. Different people in the organisation are performing different type of jobs and they need to be (elated in some structural way so that their work can be effectively co-ordinated.
Technology:  Technology such as machines and work processes provide the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform. The technology used has a significant influence on working relationships. It allows people to do more and work better but it also restricts' people in various ways.
Environment:All organisations operate within an external environment. It is the part of a larger system that contains many other elements such as government, family and other organisations. All of these mutually influence each other in a complex system that creates a context for a group of people.

Organisational behaviour starts with the following six fundamental  concepts revolving around the nature of people and organisations:
1.     The nature of people:
2.     Individual differences
3.     A whole person
4.     Motivated behaviour
5.     Value of the person
6.     The nature of organisation:
7.     Social system
8.     Mutual interest
Individual Differences:Individuals are different in their physical and mental traits. They are different not only in the physical appearance such as sex, age, height, weight, complexion and so on but also different in their psychological trait such as intelligence, attitude, motivation and perception. This belief that each person is different from all others is typically called the 'Law of Individual Differences'. Individual differences mean that the management has to treat them differently to get the best out of them.
A Whole Person: Though the organisation may feel that they are employing only the individual's skill or intelligence, in fact, they employ the 'whole person'. This means that individual does not have only the skill and intelligence but he has a personal life, needs and desires as well. In other words, his personal life cannot be separated from his work life since people function as total human beings.
When management practices organisational behaviour, it is not only trying to develop a better employee but it also wants to develop a 'better person' in terms of all round growth and development. The benefit will extend beyond the firm into the larger society in which each employee lives.
Motivated behaviour:It is the urge of the individual to satisfy a particular need that motivates him to do an act. The motivation could be positive or negative.
      Motivation is essential for the proper functioning of organisations. The organisation can show to its employees how certain actions will increase their need fulfilment.
Value of the Person:It is more an ethical philosophy. It stresses that people are to be treated with respect and dignity. Every job, however simple, entitles the people who do it to proper respect and recognition of their unique aspirations and abilities.  Since organisational behaviour involves people, ethical philosophy is involved in one way or the other.
The nature of an organisation can be understood with the help of tjie description of following two points:

Social System:A system is a group of independent and interrelated elements comprising a unified whole. In context with an organisation, the individuals of a society are considered as a system organised by a characteristic pattern of relationships having a distinctive culture and values. It is also called social organisation or social structure. It can be further divided into following categories:
Feudal system:This is a social system, which is developed in Europe in the 8th Century. A political and economic system based on the holding of. land and relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and forfeiture.
Patriarchate:This is social system, in which a male is considered to be the family head and title or surname is traced through his chain. In other words, power lies in his hands.
Matriarchate:This is social system, in which a female is considered to be the family head and title or surname is traced through her chain. In other words, power lies in her hands.
Meritocracy:This is a social system, in which power vests in the hands of the person with superior intellects.
Class Structure:This is a social system of different classes with in a society.
Segregation:This is a social system, which provides separate facilities for minority groups of a society.
Mutual Interest:Organisational relationships are most likely to be strong if different groups can negotiate strategies. This can be defined as the interests that are common to both the parties and are related to the accomplishment of their respective goals. This space for sharing ideas builds trust. Individuals who have shared mutual interests are likely to make their organisation the strongest, because even though the views are different they have a shared concern for similar objectives. It is important for the individuals to think about their issues openly, and to incorporate the perspectives of their colleagues. This helps to build sustainable and harmonious activities that can operate in the mutual direct interests of the organisation.

LIMITATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
Organizational behaviour cannot abolish conflict and frustration but can only reduce them. It is a way to improve but not an absolute answer to problems.
It is only one of the many systems operating within a large social system.
People who lack system understanding may develop a 'behavioral basis', which gives them a narrow view point, i.e., a tunnel vision that emphasizes on satisfying employee experiences while overlooking the broader system of an organization in relation to all its public.
The law of diminishing returns also operates in the case of organizational behaviour. It states, that at some point increase of a desirable practice produce declining returns and sometimes, negative returns. The concept implies that for any situation there is an optimum amount of a desirable practice. When that point is exceeded, there is a decline in returns. For example, too much security may lead to less employee initiative and growth. This relationship shows that organizational effectiveness is achieved not by maximizing one human variable but by working all system variables together in a balanced way.
A significant concern about organizational behaviour is that its knowledge and techniques could be used to manipulate people without regard for human welfare. People who lack ethical values could use people in unethical ways
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR
Human behavior, which is; considered a complex phenomenon, is very difficult to define in absolute terms. It is primarily a combination of responses to external and internal stimuli. These responses would reflect psychological structure of the person and may be results' of the combination of biological and psychological processes, which interpret them, respond to them in an appropriate manner and learn from the result of these responses.
Psychologist Kurt Levin has conducted; considerable research into the human behavior and its causes. He believes that people are influenced by a number of diversified factors, which can be both genetic and environmental. The influence of these factors determines the pattern of human behavior.
An individual makes a variety of contributions to an organization in the form of—efforts, skills, ability, time, loyalty and so forth. These contributions presumably satisfy various needs and requirements of the organization. In return for contributions, the organization provides incentives such as pay, promotion, and job security to the employee. Just as the contributions available from the individual must satisfy the organization's needs, the incentives must serve the employees' needs in return.
Physical Differences
·        Height
·        Weight
·        Body Shape
·        Appearance
·        Complexion 
Psychological Differences
  • Personality
  • Attitudes
  • Perception
  • Motivation
  • Learning

Attitude
 
it has three components, which are as follows:
 
    Affective component
    Cognitive component
    Intentional component
Individual   attitude  are  formed  over  time  as  a  result  of repeated  personal experiences with ideas, One of the very important ways to understand individual behaviour in an organization is that of studying attitude, which is situationally specific and learned.

Perception
Perception is an important mediating cognitive process. Through this complex process, people make interpretations of the stimulus or situation they are faced with. Both selectivity and organization go 'into perceptual, interpretations. Externally, selectivity is affected by intensity, size, contrast, repetition, motion and novelty and familiarity. Internally, perceptual selectivity is influenced by the individual's motivation, learning and personality. After the selective process filters the stimulus situation, the incoming information is organized into a meaningful whole in situations or people.
MOTIVATION
Motivation is an important part of managing process. A team of highly qualified and motivated employees is necessary for achieving objectives of an organization because of the following reasons:
Motivated employees make optimum use of available resources for achieving objectives.
Motivation is directly related to the level of efficiency of employees.
Motivated employees make full use of their energy and other abilities to raise the existing level of efficiency.
Motivated employees make goal-directed efforts. They are more committed and cooperative for achieving organizational objectives.
Motivated employees are more loyal and sincere to an organization. These factors help reduce absenteeism and labor turnover.
Motivation is considered as a backbone of good industrial relations.
Effectively motivated employees get more job satisfaction and possess high morale.
Motivation also helps in improving the image of an organization.

The motivation process begins with identification of individual needs. For example, when an employee feels underpaid then what, then he tries to fulfill his needs by asking for a raise or by working harder to earn a raise or by seeking a new job. He then chooses to pursue one or more of these options for instance, working harder while simultaneously looking for a job. If his hard work resulted in a pay rise, he probably feels satisfied and will continue to work hard. But if no raise has been provided he is likely to try another option. Since people have many different needs, the satisfaction of one need or set of needs is likely to give rise to the identification of other needs. Thus, the cycle of motivation is cons

DEFINITION OF A GROUP
A group is a two or more individual who interact regularly with each other to accomplish a common purpose or goal.
According to Marvin Shaw, "a group comprises, of two or more persons who interact with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person'.
The key parts of this definition are the concepts of interaction and influence, which also limit the size of the group. It is difficult for members to interact sufficiently in a large group.
Groups or work teams are the primary tools used by managers. Managers need groups to co-ordinate individual behavior in order to reach the organizational goals. Groups can make a manager's job easier because by forming a group, he need not explain the task to each and every individual. A manager can easily co­ordinate with the work of an individual by giving the group a task and allow them to co-ordinate with each other. But for a group to work effectively, the interactions between its members should be productive. Therefore, managers must pay attention to the needs of individuals.
Need for a Group
The reasons for the need, of groups are as follows: 
-Management of modern organizations make mutual efforts to introduce industrial democracy at workplace. They use project teams and work committees where workers get due recognition. They willingly participate in decision-making.
-The tasks in modern industries are becoming more complex, tedious arid of repetitive nature. Work committees, work groups and teams are formed to monitor the work. They also make the environment at workplace more lively.
-Groups help in making participative management more effective.
-Groups of all kinds and types help by cooperating in all the matters related to production and human relations to work effectively in the organization.
-An individual cannot perform each and every task. Group efforts are required for its completion. For example, building a ship, making of a movie, construction of a fly-over, etc. All these require coordinated and unified efforts of many individuals, working in a group.
-A group can judge in a better way as compared to an individual.
While accomplishing tasks, all members of a group together use their creative and innovative ideas than a single individual.
-In a group, individuals communicate with each oilier, discuss their work performances and take suggestions from each other to make it better.
-Group efforts affect an individual, his attitude and behavior.
-Group has the ability to satisfy the needs of its members
Types of Groups
In an organization, there are three types of groups, which are as follows:
Functional or formal groups
Functional groups are the groups formed by the organization to accomplish different organizational purposes. According to A L Stencombe, "a formal group is said to be any social arrangement in which the activities of some persons are planned by others to achieve a common purpose". These groups are permanent in nature. They have to follow rules, regulations and policy of the organization. A formal organizational group includes departments such as the personnel department, the advertising department, the quality control department and the public relations department.
Task group
            Tasks groups are the groups formed by an organization to accomplish a narrow range of purposes within a specified time. These groups are temporary in nature. They also develop a solution to a problem or complete its purpose. Informal committees, task forces and work teams are included in task groups. The organization after specifying a group membership, assigns a narrow set of purposes such as developing a new product, evaluating a proposed grievance procedure, etc.
Informal group
Informal groups are the groups formed for the purposes other than the organizational goals. Informal groups form when individuals are drawn together by friendship, by mutual interests or both. These groups are spontaneous. According to Keith David, "the network of persons and social relations which is not established or required form an informal organization". These are the groups formed by the employees themselves at the workplace while working together. The organization does not take any active interest in their formation.

Informal groups are very effective and powerful. These groups work as an informal communication network forming a part of the grapevine to the organizations. They are also like a powerful force, which an organization cannot avoid. Some managers consider them to be harmful to the interest of an organization. They suspect their integrity and consider as a virtual threat. Some managers do not consider them as threat and seek the help of group members in getting the organizational task accomplished. Informal groups are of following types:
o   Interest group:Interest groups are the groups formed to attain a common purpose. Employees coming together for payment of bonus, increase in salary, medical benefit and other facilities are the examples of interest groups
o   Membership group:Membership groups are the groups of individuals' belonging to the same profession and knowing each other. For example, teachers of the same faculty in a university.
o   Friendship group:Friendship groups are the groups of individuals belonging to same age group, having similar views, tastes and opinions. These groups can also be formed outside the plant or office and can be in the form of clubs and associations.
o   Reference group:Reference groups are the group where individuals shape their ideas, beliefs, values etc. They want support from the group

POWER AND AUTHORITY
It is the potential ability of a person or group to influence another person or group. It is the ability to get things done the way one wants them to be done. Both formal and informal groups and individuals may have power; it does not need an official position or the backing of an institution to have power. Influence can take many forms. One person has influenced another if the second person's opinions, behavior or perspectives have changed as a result of their interaction. Power is a factor at all levels of most organizations. It can be a factor in almost any organizational decision.

POWER AND AUTHORITY
Sometimes power and authority is used synonymously because of their objective of influencing the behavior of others. However, there is difference between the two. Power does not have any legal sanctity while authority has such sanctity. Authority is institutional and is legitimate. Power, on the other hand, is personal and does not have any legitimacy. But stilt, power is a crucial factor in influencing the behavior in organizational situation.
Sources of Power
John R. P. French and Bertram Raven identified five bases or sources of power: legitimate, reward, coercive, expert and referent power. 
Legitimate Power
A person's position within organization provides him with legitimate power. The organization gives managers the power to direct the activities of their subordinates. Legitimate power is similar to formal authority and hence it can be created, granted, changed or withdrawn by the formal organization. The structure of the organization also identifies the strength of the legitimate authority by position location. For instance, higher-level positions exercise more power than lower-level positions in a classical hierarchical organizational structure. Organizations vary in how much legitimate power they grant to individuals. In such organizations, everyone knows who has the most power and few people challenge the power structure 
Reward Power
This type of power is the extent to which one person has control over rewards that are valued by another. The greater the perceived values of such rewards, the greater the power. Organizational rewards include pay, promotions and valued office assignments. A manager who has complete control over such rewards has a good deal of power. Manager who uses praise and recognition has also a good deal of power.
Coercive Power
People have, coercive power if they have control over some form of punishment such as threat of dismissal, suspension, demotion or other method of embarrassment for the people. Perhaps, a manager can cause psychological harm also lo an employee. A manager’s coercive power increases with the number and severity of the sanctions over which the manager has control. Although the use of coercive power is often successful in the short run, it tends to create resentment and hostility and therefore is usually detrimental to the organization in the long run 
Expert Power
It is more of personal power than organizational power. Expert power is that influence which one wields as a result of one's experience, special skill or knowledge. This power occurs when the expert threatens to withhold his knowledge or skill. Since any person who is not easily replaceable has more power as compared to those who are easily replaceable. If the sub-ordinates view their superior as competent, and knowledgeable, naturally they will obey and respect the superior. To the extent, that a low-ranking worker has important knowledge not available to a superior, he is likely to have more power.
 Referent Power
A person who is respected by certain others for whatever reason has referent power over those people. A person with referent power may have charisma and people who respect that person are likely to get emotionally involved with the respected person and identify with, accept and be willing to follow him or her. People with referent power are often imitated by others with the star's actions, attitudes and dress. This imitation reflects the rising star's power over the imitations.
up.

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
Although organizations initiate changes in order to adjust to the changes in their environments but people sometimes resist them. Therefore, managers need to recognize the manifestations of resistance both in themselves and in others, if they want to be more effective in supporting change. For example, managers can use the list given in following table.





The sources of resistance to change within organizations are classified into organizational sources of resistance and individual sources of resistance.

ORGANIZATIONAL SOURCES OF RESISTANCE
According to Daniel   Kantz and Robert L Khan, organizational sources of resistance can be divided into following six general groups.

Over determination or structural inertia refers to the tendency of an organization's rules, policies and structure to maintain the existing conditions and therefore resist change even when change would benefit the organization more than stability.
When an organization tries to change one of its division or part of the division without recognizing the interdependence of the division with other divisions of the organization, then it is said to have a narrow focus of change. Often a part of division cannot be changed without changing the whole division.
Group inertia may weaken an individual’s attempt to bring about change.
Resistance may also take the form of threatened expertise if the change lends to weaken special expertise built after years of experience. Organizational restructuring that involves reducing the number of job categories often meets this kind of resistance.
Any change that may alter the power relationships within an organization may meet the form of resistance known as ‘threatened power’.
Resistance may occur when a change threatens quantum of resource allocation from one part of the organization to another.

Individual Sources of Resistance
According to researchers, individuals have the following reasons for resisting change:
Simple habits create a lot of resistance. Most people prefer to do their work the way they did it last week rather than learn a new approach.
Perhaps the biggest cause of employee resistance to change is uncertainty. In the face of impending change, employees are likely to become anxious and nervous. They worry about their ability to meet new job demands therefore, leading to feeling of job insecurity.
Some people resist change to avoid feeling of loss. For example, many organizations change interventions and alter work arrangements, thus disrupting existing social networks. Social relationships are important to most people, so they resist any change that might adversely affect those relationships. Change may also threaten people's feelings of familiarity and self-confidence.
People may resist change because their perceptions of underlying circumstances differ from the perceptions of those who are promoting the c
OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
Managers need not abandon planned change in the face of resistance. Before recommending specific approaches to overcome resistance, there are three key conclusions that should be kept in mind. First, an organization must be ready for change. Second, the top management should inform the employees about the process of change. Third, the employees perceptions or interpretations of a change should be considered.
The following methods of overcoming-resistance to change are as follows:
Participation:Participation is generally considered the most effective technique for overcoming resistance to change. Employees who take part in planning and implementing change are better able to understand the reasons for the change than those who are not involved. They become committed to the change and make it work. Employees who have the opportunity to express their own ideas and to understand the perspectives of others are likely to accept change gracefully. It is a time consuming process.
Education and Communication:Educating employees about the need for and the expected results of an impending change help reduce their resistance. Managers should maintain an open channel of communication while planning and implementing change. However, it is also a time consuming process.
Facilitation of Change:Knowing ahead of lime that employees are likely to resist change then the manager should do as much as possible to help them cope with uncertainly and feeling of loss. Introducing change gradually, making only necessary changes, announcing changes in advance and allowing time for people to adjust to new ways of doing things can help reduce resistance.
Force-Field Analysis:In almost any situation where a change is being planned, there are forces acting for and against the change. In force-field analysis, the manager list each set of forces and then try to remove or minimize some of the forces acting against the change.
Negotiation:Where someone or some group will clearly lose out in a change and where that group has considerable power to resist, there negotiation is required. Sometimes it is a relatively easy way to avoid major resistance.
Manipulation and Cooperation:This is followed when other tactics will not work or are too expensive. It can be quick and inexpensive, However, it can lead to further problems if people feel manipulated.
Explicit and Implicit Coercion:This is adopted where speed is essential and where the change initiators possess considerable power. It is speedy and can overcome resistance.

Each of the above methods has its advantages and disadvantages. There is no universal strategy for overcoming resistance to change. Hence, an organization that plans to introduce certain changes must be prepared to face resistance from its employees. An organization should also have a planned approach to overcome such resistanc
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ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
The term Organizational Development (OD) refers to a broad range of behavioral science based strategies used to diagnose the need for change in organizations and to implement changes when necessary. OD can be defined as a technique for bringing change in the entire organization, rather man focusing attention on individuals to bring change easily in the entire organization.

Nature of OD
OD is a general strategy or approach to organizational change mat is employed to analyze and diagnose the sources of organizational problems and to develop and implement action plans for their solution. According to Bennis, OD has the following characteristics;
It is an educational strategy for bringing planned change.
It relates to real problems of an organization.
Laboratory training methods based on experienced behavior are primarily used to bring change.
Change agent applying OD technique for change is external to the forms of consultants.
There is a close working relationship between change agents and the people who are being changed. The relationships involve mutual trust, joint goals, means, and mutual influence.
The change agents share social philosophy about human value. They are humanists seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in organization.

OD Interventions
OD interventions refer to various activities which consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational functioning by enabling organization members to better manage their team and organization cultures. French and Well have defined OD interventions as "sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development; they make things happen and are what is happening.”

Intervention Techniques
Sensitivity Training
Process Consultation
Team Development
Grid Organization Development

Sensitivity Training:Sensitivity training is a small-group interaction under stress in an unstructured encounter group, which requires people to become sensitive to one another's feelings in order to develop reasonable group activity. In sensitivity training, the actual technique employed is T-group. T-group has several characteristic features:
The T-group is generally small, from ten to twenty members
The group begins its activity with no formal agenda
The primary role of trainer is to call attention of members from time to time lo the ongoing process within the group
The procedure lends to develop introspection and self-examination, with emotional levels of involvement and behavior.

The objectives of such training are increased openness with others, more concern for others, increased tolerance for individual differences, less ethnic prejudice, understanding of a group process, enhanced listening skills and increased trust and support.

Process Consultation:Process Consultation (P-C) represents a method of intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P-C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups to help them learn about human and social processes and learn to solve problems that stem from process events. P-C consists of many interventions and activities which affect the various organizational processes such as. communication, roles and functions of group members, group problem-solving and decision-making, group norms, authority and leadership and inter-group cooperation and conflicts.

Team Development:The underlying aim of team development is to increase trust among team members because people work better together when there is open and honest sharing about the problems and difficulties that they have with one another. As such, at the initial level, the attempt should be to develop such an environment where such trust can be developed among the team members

Grid Organization Development:Grid organization development, developed by Blake and Mounton, is a comprehensive and systematic OD Program. The Program aims at individuals, groups and the organization as a whole. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments, enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strength and weaknesses. It also focuses on skills, knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual, group and inter-group and total organization levels.

In addition to these people focused interventions, there may be other types of interventions too. e.g. structural and job interventions such as job enlargement, job enrichment, management by objectives, rules, procedures and authority structure.

OD offers some very attractive methodologies and philosophies to practicing managers and academicians. William Halal is right when he says "OD in future includes any method for modifying the behavior in the organization, hereby, encompassing the entire spectrum of applied behavioral science". There also have been experiences of failure in OD but these are being recorded and collected to be reviewed. In general, OD shows a promising future, since there are no rigid sets of procedures in OD work and different strategies have to be evolved for different types of organizations.

IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
Motivation is an important part of managing process. A team of highly qualified and motivated employees is necessary for achieving objectives of an organization because of the following reasons:
Motivated employees make optimum use of available resources for achieving objectives.
Motivation is directly related to the level of efficiency of employees.
Motivated employees make full use of their energy and other abilities to raise the existing level of efficiency.
Motivated employees make goal-directed efforts. They are more committed and cooperative for achieving organizational objectives.
Motivated employees are more loyal and sincere to an organization. These factors help reduce absenteeism and labor turnover.
Motivation is considered as a backbone of good industrial relations.
Effectively motivated employees get more job satisfaction and possess high morale.
Motivation also helps in improving the image of an organization.

The motivation process begins with identification of individual needs. For example, when an employee feels underpaid then what, then he tries to fulfill his needs by asking for a raise or by working harder to earn a raise or by seeking a new job. He then chooses to pursue one or more of these options for instance, working harder while simultaneously looking for a job. If his hard work resulted in a pay rise, he probably feels satisfied and will continue to work hard. But if no raise has been provided he is likely to try another option. Since people have many different needs, the satisfaction of one need or set of needs is likely to give rise to the identification of other needs. Thus, the cycle of motivation is constantly re
TYPES OF CONFLICT
The levels of group conflict are as follows:
Personal   conflict:Are   the   conflicts   that   arise   among   employees, individuals because of their competitive roles.
Group conflict: Are the conflicts arising within two or more groups due to difference in their attitudes and behavior.
Infra-organizational conflict:Are the conflict arising between
levels of an organization, which are of two types. Vertical conflict arises between higher and lower level of management. Horizontal conflict arises among the employees at same level.

Following is the sequence in which a conflict can arise:
Latent conflict: Is a situation when the conditions for conflict arise.  For example, two groups competing for scarce resources.
Perceived conflict:Is a situation when both the groups realize that there exists conflict between them.
Felt conflict: Is a situation when members involved in the conflict feel tense or anxious.
Manifest conflict:Is a situation when both the group try to frustrate each other.
Conflict outcome:Is a situation or consequence arising after the conflict is eliminated.
REASONS FOR CONFLICT
There are many reasons for conflicts among groups and its members. Some of them are related to limited resources, communication problems, differences in interests and goals, different perceptions, attitudes and lack of clarity about responsibilities. The reasons for group conflicts are as follows:
Communication problems:Groups often become very involved with their own areas of responsibility. They tend to develop their own unique vocabulary. Paying attention to an area of responsibility is a worthy Endeavour, but it can result in communication problems. The receiver of information should be considered when a group communicates an idea, a proposal, or a decision. Misinformed receivers often become irritated and then hostile.
Incompatible goals:Inter-group conflict arises because of goal incompatibility. In other words, goal attainment by one group may reduce the level of goal attainment by other groups. This may be due to horizontal differentiation and task specialization. The conflict between production and marketing departments, line and staff departments, union and management are few examples of inter-group conflicts that arise because of in­compatibility of goals.
Task interdependence:Task interdependence means to what extent a work, group relies on other organizational groups to complete its tasks. In simple words, it refers to the dependence of one group on another for resources or information. It can be said in genera] that as interdependence increases, the potential for conflict increases.
      According to J. Thompson, there are three types of interdependence among groups, which are as follows:
Pooled interdependence:It arises when groups have little interaction with each other but are affected by each other's activities. For example, a branch in Delhi does not need to interact with a branch in Chennai. The only linkage between the two is that they share financial resources from a common pool and the success of each branch contributes to the success of the organization.
Sequential task interdependence:It arises when one group is unable to commence its work until the work of other group gets completed. In sequential task interdependence, the output of one group becomes the input of another group. In such situations, the potential for conflict is greater. Life and staff groups often have conflicts resulting from this type of interdependence.
Reciprocal interdependence:It arises between the groups, which depend on each other for their respective task such as production department and quality department. The production department provides the goods to the marketing department to sell and the marketing department prepares the orders and estimates on the basis of the volume produced by the production department. Inter-group conflict arises from reciprocal task interdependence over difference in performance expectations. Each group is dissatisfied will the quality or quantity of work received; from the other group.
Task ambiguity:The lack of clarity over job responsibilities is called task ambiguity and it frequently leads to aggression between groups. Inter-group conflict also arises when it is not clear which group is responsible for certain activities. Task ambiguity often arises where the organization is growing quickly or the organization's environment is changing rapidly. A good example of task ambiguity is inter-group conflict arising in the recruitment of new employees. It may be the responsibility of either the personnel department or any of the functional departments such as marketing, finance. The confusion may also arise regarding who has the final authority to execute the final decisions.
Resource sharing:The relation between two groups can be affected by the degree to which they make use of a common pool of resources and the degree to which this common pool of resources is adequate to meet the demands of both the groups. Thus, conflict of this nature; arises because of the differences between aggregate demand of a group and available resources to meet them. Each party of the conflict competes with each other to get a larger share. The conflict between management and the labor union-is the best example. Such conflicts take place in the quantum of wages, amenities, working conditions and other related matters.
Difference in work orientation:The ways in which employees do their work and deal with others vary widely with the functional areas of an organization. First, functional groups differ in their time perspectives. For example, R&D scientists have a longer-range of goals than manufacturing groups. The range of work of manufacturing group is evaluated on how quickly it can manufacture high-quality products while the range of R&D scientists can be evaluated on the basis of product development and testing after a long period of time. Second, the goals of different functional groups vary to a large extent. The goals of manufacturing groups are more specific and clear-cut than the goals of R&D groups.
            The greater the differences in goal and time between two groups, the more likely it is that conflict will arise between them while co-ordinating their work efforts. These differences between groups result in frustration, misinterpretation of the behaviors and activities of other groups.
o   Conflicting reward systems:Sometimes the ways in which reward systems in organizations arc designed create a situation in which one group can only. accomplish its goal at the expense of other groups. For example, staff departments may be rewarded for cutting costs and personnel while line departments are rewarded for increasing the amount of products sold or services provided. To increase the amount of products sold, the line group may have to depend even more heavily on staff groups such as advertising. However the staff groups are being rewarded for cutting costs and personnel provided the types of services asked for by line groups can prevent them from meeting their own goals. Conflicting reward systems inevitably result in poor inter-group relations.
o   Different perceptions and attitudes:The attitudes, values and perceptions of members of various groups towards each other can be a cause and a consequence of the nature of their relationship. If the group relations begin with the attitudes of distrust, competitiveness, secrecy and closed communications, there is a possibility of conflicts, disagreements in their views and among themselves. This can affect the success of a group to accomplish their work in an effective manner.

peated.
Attitude
 
it has three components, which are as follows:
 
    Affective component
    Cognitive component
    Intentional component
DEFINITION OF A GROUP
A group is a two or more individual who interact regularly with each other to accomplish a common purpose or goal.
According to Marvin Shaw, "a group comprises, of two or more persons who interact with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person'.
The key parts of this definition are the concepts of interaction and influence, which also limit the size of the group. It is difficult for members to interact sufficiently in a large group.
Groups or work teams are the primary tools used by managers. Managers need groups to co-ordinate individual behavior in order to reach the organizational goals. Groups can make a manager's job easier because by forming a group, he need not explain the task to each and every individual. A manager can easily co­ordinate with the work of an individual by giving the group a task and allow them to co-ordinate with each other. But for a group to work effectively, the interactions between its members should be productive. Therefore, managers must pay attention to the needs of individuals.
Need for a Group
The reasons for the need, of groups are as follows: 
-Management of modern organizations make mutual efforts to introduce industrial democracy at workplace. They use project teams and work committees where workers get due recognition. They willingly participate in decision-making.
-The tasks in modern industries are becoming more complex, tedious arid of repetitive nature. Work committees, work groups and teams are formed to monitor the work. They also make the environment at workplace more lively.
-Groups help in making participative management more effective.
-Groups of all kinds and types help by cooperating in all the matters related to production and human relations to work effectively in the organization.
-An individual cannot perform each and every task. Group efforts are required for its completion. For example, building a ship, making of a movie, construction of a fly-over, etc. All these require coordinated and unified efforts of many individuals, working in a group.
-A group can judge in a better way as compared to an individual.
While accomplishing tasks, all members of a group together use their creative and innovative ideas than a single individual.
-In a group, individuals communicate with each oilier, discuss their work performances and take suggestions from each other to make it better.
-Group efforts affect an individual, his attitude and behavior.
-Group has the ability to satisfy the needs of its members.

Types of Groups
In an organization, there are three types of groups, which are as follows:
Functional or formal groups
Functional groups are the groups formed by the organization to accomplish different organizational purposes. According to A L Stencombe, "a formal group is said to be any social arrangement in which the activities of some persons are planned by others to achieve a common purpose". These groups are permanent in nature. They have to follow rules, regulations and policy of the organization. A formal organizational group includes departments such as the personnel department, the advertising department, the quality control department and the public relations department.
Task group
            Tasks groups are the groups formed by an organization to accomplish a narrow range of purposes within a specified time. These groups are temporary in nature. They also develop a solution to a problem or complete its purpose. Informal committees, task forces and work teams are included in task groups. The organization after specifying a group membership, assigns a narrow set of purposes such as developing a new product, evaluating a proposed grievance procedure, etc.
Informal group
Informal groups are the groups formed for the purposes other than the organizational goals. Informal groups form when individuals are drawn together by friendship, by mutual interests or both. These groups are spontaneous. According to Keith David, "the network of persons and social relations which is not established or required form an informal organization". These are the groups formed by the employees themselves at the workplace while working together. The organization does not take any active interest in their formation.

Informal groups are very effective and powerful. These groups work as an informal communication network forming a part of the grapevine to the organizations. They are also like a powerful force, which an organization cannot avoid. Some managers consider them to be harmful to the interest of an organization. They suspect their integrity and consider as a virtual threat. Some managers do not consider them as threat and seek the help of group members in getting the organizational task accomplished. Informal groups are of following types:
o   Interest group:Interest groups are the groups formed to attain a common purpose. Employees coming together for payment of bonus, increase in salary, medical benefit and other facilities are the examples of interest groups
o   Membership group:Membership groups are the groups of individuals' belonging to the same profession and knowing each other. For example, teachers of the same faculty in a university.
o   Friendship group:Friendship groups are the groups of individuals belonging to same age group, having similar views, tastes and opinions. These groups can also be formed outside the plant or office and can be in the form of clubs and associations.
o   Reference group:Reference groups are the group where individuals shape their ideas, beliefs, values etc. They want support from the group

POWER AND AUTHORITY
It is the potential ability of a person or group to influence another person or group. It is the ability to get things done the way one wants them to be done. Both formal and informal groups and individuals may have power; it does not need an official position or the backing of an institution to have power. Influence can take many forms. One person has influenced another if the second person's opinions, behavior or perspectives have changed as a result of their interaction. Power is a factor at all levels of most organizations. It can be a factor in almost any organizational decision.

POWER AND AUTHORITY
Sometimes power and authority is used synonymously because of their objective of influencing the behavior of others. However, there is difference between the two. Power does not have any legal sanctity while authority has such sanctity. Authority is institutional and is legitimate. Power, on the other hand, is personal and does not have any legitimacy. But stilt, power is a crucial factor in influencing the behavior in organizational situation.

Sources of Power
John R. P. French and Bertram Raven identified five bases or sources of power: legitimate, reward, coercive, expert and referent power.

Legitimate Power
A person's position within organization provides him with legitimate power. The organization gives managers the power to direct the activities of their subordinates. Legitimate power is similar to formal authority and hence it can be created, granted, changed or withdrawn by the formal organization. The structure of the organization also identifies the strength of the legitimate authority by position location. For instance, higher-level positions exercise more power than lower-level positions in a classical hierarchical organizational structure. Organizations vary in how much legitimate power they grant to individuals. In such organizations, everyone knows who has the most power and few people challenge the power structure.

Reward Power
This type of power is the extent to which one person has control over rewards that are valued by another. The greater the perceived values of such rewards, the greater the power. Organizational rewards include pay, promotions and valued office assignments. A manager who has complete control over such rewards has a good deal of power. Manager who uses praise and recognition has also a good deal of power.

Coercive Power
People have, coercive power if they have control over some form of punishment such as threat of dismissal, suspension, demotion or other method of embarrassment for the people. Perhaps, a manager can cause psychological harm also lo an employee. A manager’s coercive power increases with the number and severity of the sanctions over which the manager has control. Although the use of coercive power is often successful in the short run, it tends to create resentment and hostility and therefore is usually detrimental to the organization in the long run.

Expert Power
It is more of personal power than organizational power. Expert power is that influence which one wields as a result of one's experience, special skill or knowledge. This power occurs when the expert threatens to withhold his knowledge or skill. Since any person who is not easily replaceable has more power as compared to those who are easily replaceable. If the sub-ordinates view their superior as competent, and knowledgeable, naturally they will obey and respect the superior. To the extent, that a low-ranking worker has important knowledge not available to a superior, he is likely to have more power.

Referent Power
A person who is respected by certain others for whatever reason has referent power over those people. A person with referent power may have charisma and people who respect that person are likely to get emotionally involved with the respected person and identify with, accept and be willing to follow him or her. People with referent power are often imitated by others with the star's actions, attitudes and dress. This imitation reflects the rising star's power over the imitations.
up.
organizations change 
Change simply refers to alteration in the existing conditions of an organization. Even in most stable organizations change is necessary to maintain stability. The economic and social environment is so dynamic that without adapting to such change even the most successful organizations cannot survive in the changed environment. Therefore, management must continuously monitor the outside environment and be sufficiently innovative and creative to implement these changes effectively.
Organizations encounter different forces for change. These forces come from external and internal sources of the organization.

EXTERNAL FORCES
External forces for change originate outside an organization. There are four key external forces for change:
Demographic Characteristics:These include age, education, skill level and gender of employees. Organizations need to effectively manage these characteristics in order to receive maximum contribution and commitment from their employees.
Technological Advancements:Both manufacturing and service organizations are increasingly using technology as a means to improve productivity and market competitiveness.
Market Changes:The emergence of a global economy is forcing Indian organizations to change the way they do business. Organizations are entering into new partnerships with their suppliers in order to deliver higher quality products at lower prices.
Social and Political Pressures:These forces are created by social and political events. Personal values affect employees’ needs, priorities and motivation. Therefore, managers need to adjust their managerial style according to the changing employee values. Political events also create substantial change in an organization. Although it is difficult for organizations to predict changes in political forces, many organizations hire lobbyists and consultants to help them detect and respond to social and political changes.

INTERNAL FORCES
Internal forces for change come from inside the organization. This may come from both human resource problems and managerial behavior.

Human Resource Problems
These problems stem from employee perceptions about their work environment and conflict between an employee and organization needs. Organizations might respond to these problems by using the various approaches to job design by implementing realistic job previews and by reducing employees' role conflict, stress, work overload and ambiguity.

Managerial Behavior
Excessive interpersonal conflict between managers and their subordinates is a sign of implementing an immediate change. Inappropriate leader behavior such as inadequate direction and support are the cause of conflict between managers and their subordinates.

Nature of Change
Organizations introduce changes through people. Unless the people arc willing to accept the need and responsibility for organizational change, intended changes can never be translated into reality. In addition, individuals have to learn   to   adapt   their   attitudes   and   behavioral   patterns   to   constantly changing environments
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